As of April 28, 2016, 162 pledges for climate action - known as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions or INDCs - were submitted following the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Paris in 2015 (COP 21).
These INDCs will form the basis for implementing the Paris Agreement, with revision every two years and expectation of increasingly ambitious climate change mitigation targets.
In May the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) reviewed the INDCs to see what they mean for agriculture:
- What countries included agriculture in their mitigation and adaptation plans?
- What practices they prioritized for implementing those plans?
- How much financial support may be necessary for implementation?
With support from USAID, CCAFS published data and maps of their findings with the hope that they can inform national planning of mitigation and adaptation strategies. Read on for a summary of findings and additional resources. Complete findings and methodology can be found here and the full dataset and maps here.
Summary of Findings Across 162 INDCs:
Agriculture in INDC mitigation targets
In their INDCs, countries were asked to state their targets for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. 119 countries out of 189 included agriculture as one of the sectors in which they intended to make emissions reductions towards their targets; 78 of these were developing countries.
Agriculture in INDC adaptation priorities
Parties to the UNFCCC had the option of including priorities and plans for adaptation to climate change in their INDCs. 134 countries, most of which were developing countries, did so and 126 of those countries listed agriculture as a priority for adaptation.
Agriculture subsector target
Some INDCs provided information on particular agricultural subsectors or activities that countries plan on prioritizing for mitigation or adaptation. While some INDCs mentioned specific agricultural practices, few focused on the enabling services that can facilitate uptake or manage risk (e.g. climate information services, insurance, and credit).
23 countries mentioned agroforestry as a mitigation priority and 29 countries mentioned agroforestry as an adaptation priority. Countries that mentioned agroforestry in the context of both mitigation and adaptation are in purple. See this special issue on mitigation and adaptation in agroforestry.
Gender in the INDCs
65 countries mentioned gender in their INDCs, 35 countries mentioned gender in relation to adaptation, and 18 mentioned gender in relation to mitigation. 15 countries included gender in the context of agricultural mitigation or adaptation. Learn more about gender in climate-smart agriculture here.
Cost of mitigation measures in agriculture in INDCs
16 countries provided costs associated with agricultural and land use mitigation measures. The range in cost estimations – $2.5 million to $1.8 billion – and planning strategies illustrate the lack of data available for countries to estimate mitigation costs. Developing countries will require significant financing to implement climate actions required to meet their INDC mitigation targets. Filling the cost data gap is important for countries implementing their INDCs and building a business case to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation. Learn more about mitigation in agriculture costs here.
- Data and maps: Analysis of agriculture in Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs)
- Info note: Agriculture's prominence in the INDCs
- Info note: How countries plan to address agricultural adaptation and mitigation
- Info note: Agriculture's contribution to national emissions
- Blog: Negotiators and scientists discuss country emissions targets for agriculture at United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Subsidiary Bodies for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) 44 meeting
- Greenhouse Gas Emissions Factsheets
The research and findings in this blog are adapted from the original post on the CCAFS website.