Armenia’s Ararat Valley, a 1,177 square-kilometer swath of land located to the east of Mount Ararat, is home to critical artesian aquifers and central to the country’s economic stability. The aquifers are a frequently tapped resource for public services, agriculture, and fish farming, as well as cooling of Armenia’s nuclear power plant. Yet the valley is also highly vulnerable to climate change
and has experienced hotter, drier summers for the past 60 years.
Nationwide, Armenia’s climate trends are worsening: by 2050, the country is expected to
warm by 1.6-2.2 degrees Celsius relative to the annual average temperatures experienced over the past 30 years. Precipitation is expected to become more variable with more consecutive dry days, stronger storms, and drier summers. The situation is taxing the country’s water resource management, and 70 percent of Armenia is already under water stress
. For example, ASPIRED identified reduced water availability and crop yields as climate risks for the agricultural sector in the Ararat Valley.
CRM has been critical to ASPIRED's successes, helping guide decisions and actions that account for climate context. Notably, USAID/Armenia has been implementing components of CRM to design forward-thinking projects—including ASPIRED—even prior to USAID’s initiation of its CRM policy
in 2016 to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of efforts.
Predating the CRM policy, USAID/Armenia and ASPIRED took climate risk management actions to develop water vulnerability solutions. This early example of climate risk management in Armenia exemplifies the value of the CRM process throughout USAID, said Marina Vardanyan, USAID Armenia’s Energy and Water Advisor and Mission Environmental Officer.
Climate Risk Management
Rigorous climate risk analysis conducted at the outset of the project identified increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation as significant risks in Armenia. Additionally, water permit non-compliance and excessive groundwater extraction, as well as poor regulation of permit issuance for fish farms have compounded the already fragile water resource. To help track and manage these challenges, ASPIRED prioritized the development of regulatory support for the Government of Armenia and has assisted them in establishing data collection systems and decision making tools. The Armenia State Water Cadastre
, for example, maintains a comprehensive national data system that provides information to decision makers on water quality, quantity, and use. ASPIRED has also trained a wide range of stakeholders, including government representatives and academia, on the application of decision-support systems for sustainable management of water resources.
With ASPIRED’s support, the Government of Armenia Ministry of Environment established a working group to coordinate water resource management solutions and assess risks compounded by climate change in the Ararat Valley. Through its climate risk analysis, ASPIRED identified two water vulnerability stressors: water permit noncompliance and incidents of groundwater abstraction over allowable levels. In search of solutions, the Government of Armenia assembled a cross-sectoral working group with a diverse understanding of the stressors. Participants represented agricultural operations, fish farms, the national nuclear energy plant, and water regulatory authorities. The working group encouraged the government to adopt the Programme of Measures for Effective Management of Water Resources, which defines groundwater management targets in the Ararat Valley and identifies measures to be undertaken by government agencies to conserve Armenia’s strategic groundwater resources. These actions, from the development of decision-support tools to the establishment of the working group, have helped improve water permit compliance and reduce groundwater abstraction.
Overall, ASPIRED identified and incorporated several measures to manage climate risk, address the high demand for water services in the Ararat Valley, and help achieve project objectives. These measures included:
- Analyzing baseline conditions for sustainable use and replenishment (e.g., recharge rate and sustainable yield) of the groundwater basin;
- Inventorying groundwater wells, fish farms, and natural springs;
- Customizing a decision-support system for assessing water systems, climate impacts, and adaptation measures; and
- Piloting water-saving, reuse, and energy efficiency technologies in select communities (i.e., adaptation options).
Children in the community of Aratashen wash their hands before lunch. Aratashen, a town with 3,200 residents, now has access to clean drinking water because of ASPIRED support in piloting water saving and energy efficient technologies.
Credit: Lilith Harutyunyan, ME&A, Inc.
Through these measures, ASPIRED is advancing USAID/Armenia’s effort to increase the quality and affordability of water services
, which are critical in addressing the changing climate’s impact on water management. The project’s water-savings measures have cascading benefits both in the Ararat Valley and nationally, though the value of these effects have not been quantifiably estimated. Due to the installation of water-saving technology, industries using the aquifer will experience reduced water use costs and potential for shortages. For example, in the ASPIRED beneficiary community, Aratashen, efficient pumps for drinking water were installed and system losses were fully eliminated. ASPIRED also optimized the use of free-flowing groundwater wells in the Ararat Valley that are used by local communities for irrigation purposes. Additionally, the implementation of compliance actions promoted through ASPIRED partnerships has contributed to government authorities reporting more efficient management of water permitting.
Partners in Action
Balabek Sargsyan, Mayor of Hayanist, a small community in the Ararat Valley, has seen how the water stress has strained the local economy, challenging the irrigation network that is vital to regional agriculture, fish farms, and watershed management.
"Every piece of land is valuable in the Ararat Valley,” Sargsyan said. “There has been no irrigation water or irrigation network in Hayanist village for the last 15 to 20 years causing farmlands to gradually degrade.”
To address the agricultural challenges in Hayanist, the ASPIRED team initiated a pilot project in collaboration with Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company Armenia
. Together, the partnership supported the construction of a new irrigation system that redirected water from the nearby Lablajyan Brothers fish farm to efficiently irrigate surrounding community farmland. As a result, 40 hectares of farmland has access to reliable, nutrient-rich water which was previously going to waste.
After the ASPIRED team led construction of the irrigation network, the Hayanist community assumed ownership and maintenance responsibilities, engaging 2,046 residents and 85 households. Ultimately, the collaboration has reduced the community’s reliance on artesian water for irrigation and has reduced soil degradation, yielding 1.1 million cubic meters of groundwater savings annually. The nearby Sayat-Nova community up-scaled Hayanist’s model and adopted this same technology to irrigate nearly 190 hectares of farmland, in collaboration with the former Partnership for Rural Prosperity
, which sought to address economic challenges in rural communities, and the Fund for Armenian Relief
, an Armenian-diasporan organization focused on education, child protection, economic development, healthcare and social services. As a result, 2,400 residents and 98 households have access to irrigation water and 1.92 million cubic meters of groundwater is saved annually.
The amount of water saved annually in Hayanist and Sayat-Nova, Armenia, is equal to the amount of water used by 24,286 people to carry out daily household activities for an entire year.
“Thanks to our donors, we built a new irrigation network, installed valve boxes and individual connections, so that everyone can irrigate his own land plot,” Mayor Sargsyan said.
Many ASPIRED successes resulted from partnerships with the private sector and government in which CRM played an important role. Examples include strengthened water monitoring and management systems that improve water quality and quantity for the public. The ASPIRED team also has noted increased coordination and engagement among stakeholders that has led to shared ownership of at-risk water resources and opened the door for future water conservation collaborations.
“These ASPIRED resources, including irrigation networks, decision-support tools, water-saving technologies and more, will stay with the government and those making decisions on water allocation in the future,” Vardanyan said. “We’re providing training with each pilot so communities and the private sector can replicate the model and scale it up.”
U.S. Geological Survey experts share experience in groundwater measurements with Armenian colleagues to build capacity on the hydrogeologic framework, evaluate groundwater management options, and take next steps in the development of a groundwater flow model for the Ararat Artesian Basin. The modeled three-dimensional hydrogeologic structure shows water bearing and non-water bearing units of the Ararat Basin.
Credit: Lilith Harutyunyan, ME&A, Inc.
USAID/Armenia’s Lessons Learned
CRM contributed to three key resource management lessons learned by the USAID/Armenia ASPIRED team, Vardanyan said. These include:
- When data is used to inform resource management decision-making, water recharge rates can be increased sustainably, despite warmer temperatures and shifting precipitation patterns;
- pilot projects provide communities with important experiential learning to educate residents about best practices, as well as opportunities to scale up to broader projects; and
- cross-cutting work with beneficiaries must be integrated into project planning to ensure decisions are sustainable and have local support. Local commitment ensures community ownership and helps safeguard USAID investments.
Disciplined implementation of climate-resilient measures (e.g., analyzing baseline conditions and inventorying groundwater wells, fish farms, and natural springs) in line with USAID’s CRM policy created an environment where local solutions to water vulnerability could flourish.
“All of this is successful because it’s a joint effort,” said Lilith Harutyunyan, ASPIRED Basin Management Planning and Environmental Specialist. “We wouldn’t have made the progress we did without stakeholders, government, and academia.”
In the village of Hayanist, the Mayor says the benefits are already apparent: farmers are resuming cultivation of lands left idle for nearly 20 years because of water shortages.
“Farming and livestock breeding are the only source of income for the locals,” Sargsyan said. “It also changes people’s approach to water resources; water needs to be more effectively managed to be available in the longer term. Only with access to water can people cultivate their land, and make their living. Life exists wherever water is available."
For more information about ASPIRED:
- USAID/Armenia’s Water, Energy and Environmental Advisor, Mission Environmental Officer: Marina Vardanyan, mvardanyan [at] usaid [dot] gov
- ASPIRED Chief of Party (ME&A): Magda Avetisyan, mavetisyan [at] engl [dot] com
- ASPIRED Basin Management Planning and Environmental Specialist (ME&A): Lilith Harutyunyan, lharutyunyan [at] engl [dot] com
ASPIRED is a five-year (2015-2020) $4.9 million task order under the Water and Development IDIQ (WADI), implemented by ME&A Inc. The ASPIRED project will conclude in July, 2021. Project partners include the Coca-Cola Hellenic Bottling Company Armenia, Hayastan All-Armenian Fund, Fund for Armenian Relief, Jefferson Science Fellowship Program, USAID’s PURE-Water Project, Sayat-Nova, Hayanist and 12 other communities in the Ararat valley, Small and Medium Entrepreneurship Development National Center of Armenia (SME DNC), the USAID Global Development Lab, and the United States Geological Survey, among others. Project champions include partners from the government and local self-government, private fisheries, and other donors.
For more information about Climate Risk Management:
- Environment Officer, USAID E3 Bureau Geoffrey Blate, gblate [at] usaid [dot] gov
The Climate Integration Support Facility (CISF) blanket purchase agreement supports USAID to conduct climate risk management across all USAID programming. Climate risk management is the process of assessing, addressing and adaptively managing climate risks that may impact the ability of USAID programs to achieve development objectives. This worldwide support mechanism can assist USAID missions, bureaus and offices with climate risk management by providing analysis, facilitation, training, evaluation, learning opportunities and related services. The agreement may also support focused adaptation, clean energy and sustainable landscapes programming with such services.