Residents in Pursat province, Cambodia, cast fishing nets.
Residents in Pursat province, Cambodia, cast fishing nets. Fish is a vital, nutritious food source for rural Cambodians who eat local catches four to five times per week.

Climate Risk Management Proves Critical to Sustaining Food Security in Cambodia

Rice Field Fisheries Project Delivers $11.3 Million in Net Benefits from Fish Production Benefits Aided by CRM
By Jamie Carson, Elizabeth Hutchison

This blog is part of the Benefits of Climate Risk Management blog series that aims to provide evidence-based deep dives into USAID case studies.

A USAID-funded Cambodia fisheries project outperformed productivity goals after incorporating climate-sensitive design, including planning for increased risk of drought and extreme heat events. The Feed the Future Cambodia Rice Field Fisheries II (RFF II) project boosts fishery productivity in the Tonle Sap floodplain. Project implementers employed systemic climate risk management (CRM) actions to improve biophysical conditions across 481 hectares, exceeding their target by 6 hectares. These improvements build the area’s climate resilience by helping to protect fish habitats and diversity, maintain fish biomass, and secure water for drinking and irrigation. As climate change poses real threats to agricultural systems, CRM plays a crucial role in creating the sustainable and resilient practices necessary to achieve food and nutrition security goals. The project has helped build the capacity of communities to raise nearly $270,000 for rice field fisheries management and conservation, according to USAID Cambodia. 

CRM activities delivered through The Feed the Future Cambodia RFF II project contributed to an estimated $11.3 million in net benefits from fish production over three years." 

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Contractors deepen a community fish refuge to protect the habitat and strengthen its resilience during extreme drought conditions.
Contractors deepen a community fish refuge to protect the habitat and strengthen its resilience during extreme drought conditions. The RFF II project supported the deepening of more than 100 community fish refuges in four provinces, sustaining water for wild fish production and home consumption.

Nearly 150,000 Cambodians produced and consumed more fish at home in 2020 than in the previous year due to climate-resilient measures undertaken by the RFF II Project, which succeeded in increasing fish production in spite of prolonged droughts in 2018, 2019, and 2020. From 2018 to 2020, farming households directly involved in RFF II (22,800 households) produced nearly 10 percent more fish per household in the 140 community fish refuges compared to 2017. And even in the broader zone of impact (123,000 households), fish production increased by a similar amount per household. Overall, this resulted in an additional $1.2 million in incomes in the 140 community fish refuges and almost $5 million in increased incomes in the zone of impact over the baseline incomes. 

“This result is even more remarkable considering the drought conditions that were repeatedly experienced during that same period,” said Sothira Seng, USAID/Cambodia project management specialist. “For example, a comparison of fish catches for the month of September showed a 39 percent decrease from 2019 to 2020 in surveyed rice fields within the zone of impact due to climate stressors.”

CRM supports drought response to protect critical fish habitat

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A young child eats small fish from Cambodia’s rice field fisheries.
A young child eats small fish from Cambodia’s rice field fisheries. RFF II pairs activities that sustain small fish habitats with caregiver education about this nutrient-rich food source and dietary recommendations to prevent child malnutrition.

Communities involved in the RFF II project applied CRM strategies to safeguard fish habitats when the shortened and delayed rainfall in 2018, 2019, and 2020 reduced rice field flooding and households' fish catch. Seasonal rice field flooding is a beneficial occurrence that helps sustain water levels for fish survival. Local residents adapted action plans in response to climate stressors, applying practices learned throughout the project to manage drought impacts on community fish refuges – locally-protected bodies of water that prohibit fishing and provide a secure habitat for wild fish to breed and grow. These included implementing drought abatement plans, organizing earthen dams to increase community fish refuge water storage capacity and improve connectivity of rice field fishery ecosystems, and digging 47 rice field ponds around 13 community fish refuges to increase seasonal fish habitats.

“These actions to address climate risks helped protect wild fish during critical periods,” said Seng. “The impact of drought and heat was considered during the project’s design and translated to the expansion and deepening of community fish refuge ponds to ensure they had enough water year-round.” 

Climate risk analysis informs strategies to secure nutritious fish for households

Fish is an important dietary source for poor rural people in Cambodia, accounting for 61 percent of all households’ animal protein intake. Furthermore, 98 percent of floodplain residents participate in fishing activities. To improve inland fish production in four provinces, the RFF II project depends on effective management of community fish refuges in collaboration with local nongovernmental organizations, community leaders, and implementing partner WorldFish. Fish migrate from rice field fisheries to community fish refuges during the dry season when water levels recede. At the start of the rainy season, fish migrate back to rice field fisheries and other connected bodies of water, such as canals and streams, where fishing is permitted. Wild fish from these rice field systems are free to catch, making them a particularly valuable protein source for impoverished, landless households. Well-managed fish refuges led to a 71 percent increase in fish catch by the poorest households during the project’s first phase, strengthening food and nutrition security for community members, according to Seng. 

RFF II project implementers analyzed climate stressors, including shortened rainy seasons and prolonged drought, that contribute to harmfully-low water levels in community fish refuges and hinder fish productivity and migration to rice field fisheries. Furthermore, extreme heat during the dry season, when community fish refuge water levels are naturally lower, can lead to water temperature increases and additional water loss through evaporation, all of which threaten fish survival and some species’ fertility. RFF II developed strategies to address these climate stressors, reducing their negative impact on community fish refuge habitats and fish populations in the connected rice field fisheries. These efforts support a healthy fish stock for the community. 

Building climate-resilient community fish refuges 

From the start, the RFF II project team took steps to proactively manage climate risks, including negative impacts of prolonged drought and heat on rice field fishery systems. In conjunction with the project’s second year WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) activities, they began using climate risk screening tools to better understand how climate stressors threaten community fish refuges. Accordingly, the team developed strategies, such as expanding and deepening community fish refuges, to protect these critical water resources. Other examples include:

  • Assessment of historical drought data and local water use practices before selecting construction projects’ locations and clearing or widening canals that connect community fish refuges to natural water bodies and rice field fisheries.
  • Use of climate forecasts to schedule community fish refuge construction and maintenance activities around extreme and seasonal weather events. For example, during rainy season floods, project implementers pause construction to help reduce runoff and water quality impacts. 
  • Completion of revegetation activities, including tree planting along banks, to protect community fish refuges from flood damage and provide shade to reduce evaporation and keep water temperatures cooler for fish production. 
  • Development of specific rules for community fish refuge communities related to water sharing and using and installing water level gauges. 
  • Promotion of sustainable, climate-smart agriculture practices and water and soil conservation measures to avoid over-intensification of these natural resources. 

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Noun Muoyheang raises funds for her community’s fish conservation efforts, including tree plantings to make fish habitats more resilient to flooding and dry periods.

CRM actions like these help manage community fish refuge water levels, flow, and temperature, ultimately increasing the productivity of connected rice field fisheries. The project contributed to nearly 150,000 Cambodians consuming more fish at home in 2020 than in the previous year, supporting RFF II goals to improve food and nutritional security for poor, vulnerable rural households, and particularly children

Empowered communities carry climate risk management forward

Project implementers educate communities about the risks climate stressors create for environmental and fish health while increasing local capacity for CRM through trainings and coaching. RFF II delivered community fish refuge management and governance training to 3,841 community fish refuge committee members, local authorities, and other community members from October 2019 through September 2020. As a result, 2,067 people applied improved technologies and practices.

“I think the local communities are continuing to design and rehabilitate ponds to better withstand climate impacts because they are seeing the impact of these interventions,” Seng said. 

Project stakeholders – including community fish refuge committee members, village chiefs, and commune councils – have witnessed how CRM fortifies rice field fisheries ecosystems to ensure accessibility of critical food and water resources. These community members help guide community fish refuge management and monitoring, evaluation, and learning (MEL). They also participate in assessing and adjusting community fish refuge management strategies in response to changes in climate risk. 

Increased CRM capacity and community coordination strengthen community fish refuge resilience in severe dry periods. Community fish refuge committees participate in CRM strategies to address and adaptively manage risks, including: 

  • Implementing water use policies and practices, such as installing water-level measuring devices that indicate low water levels and direct residents to use water sparingly for rice farming.
  • Facilitating usage reduction negotiations with high-volume water users at community fish refuges, including dry season rice farmers and people selling community fish refuge water for commercial gain.
  • Organizing earthworks to deepen 29 community fish refuges and expand five community fish refuges in 2020.
  • Raising $267,533 for ongoing community fish refuge management, including conservation efforts.

Project implementers express confidence in the community’s ability to lead community fish refuge management strategies after RFF II concludes in 2021.

“When we meet with commune councils, they are interested in the project and commit to continuing the activities. This is a priority for the fisheries administration,” said Sam Oeurn Ke, USAID Cambodia project management specialist. 


*Net benefits are calculated (without discounting) based upon fish yield for households within 140 community fish refuges and households within the project’s greater zone of influence for 2018 through 2020 minus the total project cost.

For more information about the Feed the Future Cambodia Rice Field Fisheries II project: 

  • Cambodia | U.S. Agency for International Development
  • USAID Cambodia Project Management Specialist Sothira Seng
  • USAID Cambodia Project Management Specialist Sam Oeurn Ke
  • USAID Cambodia Project Management Specialist Vuthy Theng

Feed the Future Cambodia Rice Field Fisheries II is a partnership between USAID, the Cambodian Fisheries Administration (FiA), the World Vegetable Center, the Cambodia NOURISH project (Save the Children), and the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Nutrition (Tufts University). The five-year project (2016-2021) is implemented by WorldFish to improve management practices of rice field fisheries by enhancing the community fish refuges (CFR) and developing a best practice model for multi-purpose use and governance of water in CFRs. The project works in four target provinces (Kampong Thom, Siem Reap, Pursat, and Battambang) with stakeholders such as CFR committees, local authorities (village chiefs, commune councils), Fisheries Administration cantonment (FiAC) and FiA central, and in direct partnership with local nongovernmental organizations Trailblazer Cambodian Organization, Cambodian Organization for Women Support, Village Support Group, Akphivath Neary Khmer Organization, and Teuk Saat 1001. 

RFF II is raising awareness of the nutritional value of consuming whole small fish and improves fish preparation and diet diversification. Progress toward the project’s food and nutrition goals includes achieving a 94.3 percent decrease in the number of households that remove nutrient-rich viscera and heads of small fish prior to consumption from March 2017 to September 2020, providing access to drinking water services to 120,483 people and 101 institutions through 12 water stations, and reaching 6,112 children under the age of five months and 2,716 children under the age of 2 with nutrition-sensitive interventions.

For more information about climate risk management: 

  • Geoffrey Blate, Ph.D., Environment Officer, Climate and Cross-Sectoral Strategies, USAID/DDI Environment, Energy and Infrastructure Bureau, [email protected]

The Climate Integration Support Facility (CISF) blanket purchase agreement supports USAID to conduct climate risk management across all USAID programming. Climate risk management is the process of assessing, addressing, and adaptively managing climate risks that may impact the ability of USAID programs to achieve development objectives. This worldwide support mechanism can assist USAID missions, bureaus, and offices with climate risk management by providing analysis, facilitation, training, evaluation, learning opportunities, and related services. The agreement may also support focused adaptation, clean energy, and sustainable landscapes programming with such services.

Country
Cambodia
Strategic Objective
Adaptation
Topics
Adaptation, Climate Risk Management, Food Security and Agriculture, Resilience, Water and Sanitation
Region
Asia
Jamie Carson headshot

Jamie Carson

As founder and chief executive officer of Carson+Co Global, Jamie Carson leads the company’s vision, strategy, and business operations. Carson serves as key personnel under the Abt Associates consortium on the USAID project – Climate Integration Support Facility (CISF) and helped lead capacity building, communications, and knowledge management activities under the U.S. Agency for International Development project, Climate Change Resilient Development (CCRD). Carson emphasizes the power of partnerships in communications strategies, and education and engagement to create lasting knowledge and sustainable and equitable behaviors.
Elisabeth Hutchison headshot

Elizabeth Hutchison

Elizabeth Hutchison, chief operating officer at Carson+Co Global and personnel on USAID Climate Integration Support Facility (CISF), has more than 15 years of experience in strategic communications. Working with organizations across a multitude of sectors, Hutchison has led the design and implementation of communications strategies customized in tone and functions to build understanding and inspire engagement. She believes adaptability and listening to audiences are at the heart of leading change and advancing cooperation through information exchange.

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