At a Glance

Climate variability and change increasingly threaten Indonesia’s coastal population and infrastructure, as well as the country’s ecologically and economically important tropical forests and coastal ecosystems. With its extensive coastline and millions of people living on low-lying land just above sea level, Indonesia is among the world’s most vulnerable countries to sea level rise. Indonesia is vulnerable to other weather-related disasters such as forest and land fires, landslides, storms, and drought that have destroyed infrastructure and degraded forest and coastal ecosystems, leading to loss of life, property, ecosystem services, and livelihoods. Much of Indonesia’s greenhouse gas emissions are from land-use change and forestry, followed by energy, agriculture, waste, and industrial processes.

Climate Projections and Impacts

Refer to the Climate Risk Profile (2017) for more information.

Additional Information: Indonesia Climate Change Country Profile & Fact Sheet at

Climate Projections

Increased/More Frequent Precipitation

Sea Level Rise

Increased Temperature

Key Climate Impact Areas


Coasts and Fisheries

Forests & Biodiversity

Human Health


Funding & Country Climate Context

Refer to metadata and sources for more details.

USAID Climate Change Funding (2022)


$27.8 Million


$8 Million

Clean Energy

$7.8 Million

Sustainable Landscapes

$12 Million

GAIN Vulnerability


Population (2023)

278.5 million

GHG Emissions Growth


% Forested Area


Climate Change Information

Climate Risk Profile

Climate Risk Profile: Indonesia

Indonesia Photo Gallery

Stories from the Area

NREL identified ten climate finance levers that could be applied to USAID programs to increase the scale of investment in clean energy and energy efficiency in partner countries.
Mini-Grid Solar Project on a Remote Island in Myanmar
The Kasabela mobile application is a field survey tool that provides accurate, real-time data to inform evidence-based decision making.
Two men watch as woman fills out form
While forests and other ecosystems could help reduce one-third of global greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, currently only about 3 percent of climate finance is invested in forest ecosystems. Southeast Asian forests have been shrinking faster than forests anywhere else in the world so it is critical for this region to balance economic growth, forest protection, and climate change mitigation efforts.
Farmer smiling with their harvest