At a Glance

Climate variability and change increasingly threaten Indonesia’s coastal population and infrastructure, as well as the country’s ecologically and economically important tropical forests and coastal ecosystems. With its extensive coastline and millions of people living on low-lying land just above sea level, Indonesia is among the world’s most vulnerable countries to sea level rise. Indonesia is vulnerable to other weather-related disasters such as forest and land fires, landslides, storms, and drought that have destroyed infrastructure and degraded forest and coastal ecosystems, leading to loss of life, property, ecosystem services, and livelihoods. Much of Indonesia’s greenhouse gas emissions are from land-use change and forestry, followed by energy, agriculture, waste, and industrial processes.

Climate Projections and Impacts

Refer to the Climate Risk Profile (2017) for more information.

Additional Information: Indonesia Climate Change Country Profile & Fact Sheet at

Climate Projections

Increased/More Frequent Precipitation

Sea Level Rise

Increased Temperature

Key Climate Impact Areas


Coasts and Fisheries

Forests & Biodiversity

Human Health


Country Climate Context

Population (2023)

278.5 Million

GAIN Vulnerability


GHG Emissions Growth


% Forested Area


Funding & Key indicators

USAID Climate Change Funding (2023)


$11.5 Million


$3.5 Million

Sustainable Landscapes

$8 Million

Investment Mobilized for Clean Energy (USD) (2022)


Clean Energy Generation Capacity that has Achieved Financial Closure (MW) (2022)


Projected GHG Emission Reduced or Avoided from Clean Energy Through 2030 from Adopted Laws, Policies, Regulations or Technologies (tCO2e) (2022)


Investment Mobilized for Sustainable Landscapes (USD) (2022)


Hectares Under Improved Management Expected to Reduce GHG Emissions (2022)


Reduced or Sequestered GHG Emissions through Sustainable Landscapes Activities (metric tons) (2022)


Refer to metadata and sources for more details.

Climate Change Information

Climate Risk Profile

Climate Risk Profile: Indonesia

Indonesia Photo Gallery

Stories from the Area

HEARTH is a collaborative public–private partnership approach to sustainable development initiated by USAID that seeks to address biodiversity loss and climate change while supporting the livelihoods of local communities. 
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NREL identified ten climate finance levers that could be applied to USAID programs to increase the scale of investment in clean energy and energy efficiency in partner countries.
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