A river runs through the middle of the image. It is surrounded a rocky, semi-arid environment with farmland on both sides.


At a Glance

Iraq is a nation grappling with significant and interconnected environmental, security, political, and economic challenges. Rising temperatures, intense droughts, declining precipitation, desertification, salinization, and the increasing prevalence of dust storms have undermined Iraq’s agricultural sector, already long in decline. Compounding these trends is the threat of water scarcity. National and regional political volatility and uncertainty will make mitigating the effects of climate change and addressing the critical issue of transnational water management very difficult. The current trajectory of increasing temperatures, reduced precipitation, and increasing water scarcity will likely have serious implications for the country. The energy sector serves as the predominant source of GHG emissions in Iraq, with nearly half of emissions from fugitive emissions, followed by electricity/heat, transportation, manufacturing/construction, and other fuel combustion.

Climate Projections and Impacts

Refer to the Climate Risk Profile (2017) for more information.

Climate Projections


Increased Frequency/Intensity of Extreme Weather Events


Decreased/Less Frequent Precipitation


Increased Temperature

Key Climate Impacts


Energy & Infrastructure

Human Health

Water Resources

Funding and Key Indicators

Refer to metadata and sources for more details.

USAID Climate Change Funding (2020)



GAIN Vulnerability


Population (2020)

38.9 Million

GHG Emissions Growth


% Forested Area


Climate Change Information

Stories from the Area

Originating in Turkey, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers traditionally have met the vast majority of Iraq’s water needs. The rivers are used to pump water into millions of homes and irrigate the historic Mesopotamia agricultural fields.