A river runs through the middle of the image. It is surrounded a rocky, semi-arid environment with farmland on both sides.


At a Glance

Iraq is a nation grappling with significant and interconnected environmental, security, political, and economic challenges. Rising temperatures, intense droughts, declining precipitation, desertification, salinization, and the increasing prevalence of dust storms have undermined Iraq’s agricultural sector, already long in decline. Compounding these trends is the threat of water scarcity. National and regional political volatility and uncertainty will make mitigating the effects of climate change and addressing the critical issue of transnational water management very difficult. The current trajectory of increasing temperatures, reduced precipitation, and increasing water scarcity will likely have serious implications for the country. The energy sector serves as the predominant source of GHG emissions in Iraq, with nearly half of emissions from fugitive emissions, followed by electricity/heat, transportation, manufacturing/construction, and other fuel combustion.

Climate Projections and Impacts

Refer to the Climate Risk Profile (2017) for more information.

Climate Projections

Increased Frequency/Intensity of Extreme Weather Events

Decreased/Less Frequent Precipitation

Increased Temperature

Key Climate Impacts


Energy & Infrastructure

Human Health

Water Resources

Funding & Country Climate Context

USAID Climate Change Funding (2023)





Clean Energy


GAIN Vulnerability


Population (2023)

41.3 Million

GHG Emissions Growth


% Forested Area


Refer to metadata and sources for more details.

Climate Change Information

Climate Risk Profile

Climate Risk Profile: Iraq

Stories from the Area

The 2018 water crisis was the culmination of decades of overuse, pollution, and reduced rainfall from climate change.
Originating in Turkey, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers traditionally have met the vast majority of Iraq’s water needs. The rivers are used to pump water into millions of homes and irrigate the historic Mesopotamia agricultural fields.
Staff of the Soran Water Directorate measure the water flow through a main distribution pipe