A group of people plant cactus in a large, arid field.


At a Glance

Madagascar is home to a diverse and unique range of species and ecosystems, many of them vulnerable to current and future climate patterns. The driving sectors of the country's economy also rely on climate-sensitive natural resources, including predominantly rain-fed agriculture, fisheries and livestock production. The combination of food insecurity and a high risk of cyclone renders human health, coastal ecosystems, water and other sectors especially vulnerable to climate change. Forestry and land-use change contribute more than half of overall greenhouse gas emissions.

Climate Projections and Impacts

Refer to the Climate Risk Profile (2016) for more information

Climate Projections

Increased Frequency/Intensity of Extreme Weather Events

Increased Precipitation Unpredictability/Variability

Increased Temperature

Key Climate Impact Areas



Coastal Ecosystems

Human Health


Country Climate Context

Population (2023)

28 Million

GAIN Vulnerability


GHG Emissions Growth


% Forested Area


Funding & Key indicators

USAID Climate Change Funding (2023)


$4.9 Million


$2 Million

Sustainable Landscapes

$2.9 Million

Investment Mobilized for Sustainable Landscapes (USD) (2022)


Hectares Under Improved Management Expected to Reduce GHG Emissions (2022)


Reduced or Sequestered GHG Emissions through Sustainable Landscapes Activities (metric tons) (2022)


Refer to metadata and sources for more details.

Climate Change Information

(GHG) Greenhouse Gas Emissions Factsheet

Greenhouse Gas Emissions Factsheet: Madagascar

Climate Risk Profile

Climate Risk Profile: Madagascar

Madagascar Photo Gallery

Technical Report

Prioritizing Investments in Land-Based Climate Mitigation in Madagascar

Stories from the Area

Sea cucumbers — which expel their guts to keep predators at bay — provide immense benefits to communities and climate.
Sea cucumbers post-harvest staying fresh on a bed of salt.
Increasing global demand for timber has led to a surge of illegal exploitation and deforestation which is accelerating climate change. To address this challenge, researchers in the USAID-supported Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) in Peru, Madagascar, and Indonesia are partnering with the U.S. Forest Service to develop tools to assist private and public organizations with wood species identification and help curb illegal logging.
PEER PI Dr. Bako Harisoa Ravaomanalina in her lab at the University of Antananarivo Madagascar.
We are excited to announce the winners of the 2022 Climatelinks photo contest––our biggest contest yet. We received more than 200 submissions from the Climatelinks community, representing more than 45 countries.