At a Glance
Tanzania is one of the largest countries in East Africa, with diverse topography that gives rise to four distinct climate zones. Most of the population lives in rural areas that are dependent on rainfed agriculture which is threatened by increasing temperatures, longer dry spells, and intense rain events. Much of the population also depends on coastal and inland fisheries, which are vulnerable to sedimentation as well as warming ocean and freshwater temperatures. Despite abundant water resources, Tanzania experiences spatial and temporal water scarcity, which will be exacerbated by climate impacts on the country's nine major river basins and the continent's three largest lakes. These factors also increase risks for the country's hydropower system. Diarrheal diseases and malaria, both leading causes of death in Tanzania, are likely to escalate, particularly in urban settlements where poor infrastructure increases vulnerabilities to flooding and heat extremes. Tanzania's highest emitting sector is land-use change and forestry, followed by agriculture.