Climate Change in Mali: Expected Impacts on Pests and Diseases Afflicting Selected Crops
This technical report catalogs and analyzes the pests and diseases in the agricultural field affecting a range of crops including cereals, fiber crops, grasses, legumes, oilseed crops, and root crops. Each category of crops includes detailed tables that present analyses of the potential impact of a changed climate on the most common pests and diseases afflicting 16 important crops in Mali. The report also touches on climatic patterns and trends of temperature and rainfall, and how that may affect the pest and disease outlook. For example, climate models project that the Sahel region may experience a delay in start of the rainy season and an increase in the number of extreme events, but overall the future climate throughout the region is uncertain. The potential impacts identified are straightforward and based on probable trends, and include risk values of change in infestation or outbreak levels.
The table information was drawn from peer-reviewed scholarly articles found in 56 databases related to agriculture and botany. The tables assess each pest of disease that has been identified, and outlines the current prevalence of the problem. These assessments considered the biology and environmental requirements of each pest or disease, the endemic zone, the relative frequency of outbreaks within endemic zones, and infection rates.
Excerpt from the report:
Example from the Cereals table, Maize section
Maize Pests: Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)
- Damage: Maize Weevil produces tunneling of whole, previously unspoiled grains. In severe infestations, only the grain hull remains along with powdery white frass. It produces distinctive large holes with asymmetrical ends. Grains floating in water frequently indicate that larval damage has occurred.
- Mode of Transmission: Females gnaw into maize grains where they lay their eggs throughout most of their adult life. Both adults and larvae damage the grain by chewing. The infestation can start in the field, but most damage occurs in storage.
- Impact: Sitophilus zeamais is an important pest that causes deterioration of stored maize. It has serious economic impact.
- Significant storage pest in warm climates around the world. Adults fly from the storage facility to fields, where infestation starts and may continue after crop harvest.
Climate Change Impacts:
- Hot/Wet: Low risk of infestation of weevil
- Hot/Dry: Moderate risk of infestation of weevil