Higher temperatures, changes in daytime and nighttime temperatures, and shifts in seasons and precipitation patterns can all have a significant impact on agriculture and food security. Direct impacts on agriculture can include less fertile soil, more or different crop pests and livestock diseases, changes in fish stock, and reduced yields. Other sector-related consequences include heat stress for livestock and agricultural workers and damage to greenhouses, storage facilities, and other infrastructure.
All of this could lead to greater food insecurity by reducing nutrition, incomes, and access to markets. Agriculture is also a big contributor to emissions due to excessive use of fertilizers, methane released by rice paddies and livestock, over-tilling soil leading to soil carbon and moisture loss, and above all, the conversion of forests and other ecosystems to agricultural uses.
Some practices like low-till, conservation agriculture, crop rotations, and use of shade trees and cover crops improve resilience and reduce emissions. Other adaptation measures include rainfall capture and providing seasonal weather forecasts to inform planting decisions. Emissions can also be reduced with better land use planning to reduce conversion of forested lands
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